Contr negantem principia non est disputandum

No future interest, valid in its creation, is defeated by the
determination of the precedent interest before the happening of the
contingency on which the future interest is limited to take effect;
but should such contingency afterwards happen, the future interest
takes effect in the same manner and to the same extent as if the
precedent interest had continued to the same period.


The Gunning Fog index is 20.85

  • The number of major punctuation marks, eg. [.], was 2
  • The number of words was 63
  • The number of 3+ syllable words, highlighted in blue, was 13

The Gunning’s Fog Index (or FOG) Readability Formula

Step 1: Take a sample passage of at least 100-words and count the number of exact words and sentences. 

Step 2: Divide the total number of words in the sample by the number of sentences to arrive at the Average Sentence Length (ASL). 

Step 3: Count the number of words of three or more syllables that are NOT (i) proper nouns, (ii) combinations of easy words or hyphenated words, or (iii) two-syllable verbs made into three with -es and -ed endings. 

Step 4: Divide this number by the number or words in the sample passage. For example, 25 long words divided by 100 words gives you 25 Percent Hard Words (PHW). 

Step 5: Add the ASL from Step 2 and the PHW from Step 4. 

Step 6: Multiply the result by 0.4. 

The mathematical formula is: 

Grade Level = 0.4 (ASL + PHW) 

where, 

ASL = Average Sentence Length (i.e., number of words divided by the number of sentences) 

PHW = Percentage of Hard Words 

The underlying message of The Gunning Fog Index formula is that short sentences written in Plain English achieve a better score than long sentences written in complicated language. 

The ideal score for readability with the Fog index is 7 or 8. Anything above 12 is too hard for most people to read. For instance, The Bible, Shakespeare and Mark Twain have Fog Indexes of around 6. The leading magazines, like Time, Newsweek, and the Wall Street Journal average around 11.

Tsweek, and the Wall Street Journal average around 11.

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